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Closing the gender gap: An Ethiopian girl shines shoes to pay for school
First she got hold of some rags and a cracked water container and set herself up as one of the city’s only shoeshine girls, holding her own against hundreds of competing shoeshine boys. Then she started saving, splitting her earnings between her mother and a special school-savings pot.
On weekends and evenings after classes, Meskerem shines shoes for 20 cents to 1 birr (3 to 11 cents) a pair. On a good day, she can earn as much as 10 birr ($1.15). Half of that goes to buy food and other provisions for her family. The rest of her earnings are put toward school fees and related costs – 15 birr a month, or 154 birr for the whole year.
After months of elbow grease, she had collected enough to start paying her own way through primary school, while continuing to provide food for her mother and her four younger siblings.
“I had to go to school because I want to get knowledge,” said Meskerem. “Knowledge is how you become somebody.”
Enrolment on the rise
The participation of girls in school is still low in Ethiopia, with less than half primary school-age enrolled in school. Yet there are signs that progress is starting to accelerate – particularly in getting girls into school. Preliminary estimates for 2004/05 indicate a sharp rise in net primary school enrolment in the past year, coupled with a sharp decrease in the gender parity gap.
Nonetheless, there is still a long way to go. After Somalia, Ethiopia requires the second-highest average annual rate of increase in net enrolment and attendance in Eastern and Southern Africa if it is to meet the Millennium Development Goal of gender parity in primary education by 2015.
“Another factor has been a host of UNICEF-backed advocacy programmes encouraging girls to go to school,” she added. “There have been radio shows, huge roadside posters, UNICEF’s ‘Go Girls’ programme, after-school tutorial sessions and incentives offered to schools and districts that increase girls’ enrolment.”
Long-term effects of educating girls
UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia Björn Ljungqvist said that increasing the numbers of girls in school was one of the organization’s main priorities in the country.
“The reason we are so focused on this is that educating girls provides a myriad of benefits, not only for girls themselves, but also for their current and future families, and for societies at large,” said Mr. Ljungqvist. “The education of girls contributes to higher economic productivity, lower infant mortality and morbidity, lower fertility rates, and the attainment of longer life expectancy for both men and women.
“Furthermore, there is a greater likelihood that the children of educated girls will themselves be educated,” he added.
While Meskerem’s particular story is quite exceptional, her drive and determination to get an education in the face of huge obstacles ranging from poverty to gender expectations is typical of a new generation of Ethiopian girls. In the long term, Meskerem dreams of becoming a teacher and earning enough to look after her family.