Understanding and challenging boys’ disadvantage in secondary education in developing countries
EFA Goal 5 demands gender parity and equality in primary and secondary education. In those countries where these have not been achieved, girls remain more likely to be disadvantaged. However, in a significant number of countries, particularly in secondary education, it is boys who fare relatively poorly, with respect to enrolment, attainment, and learning achievement. The trend of boys lagging behind girls in terms of completion as well as learning achievement rates had been clearly visible in developed countries since the 1990s. But now it is increasingly becoming more common in some middle-income countries and in some cases, even in low-income countries.